Distraught over her fathers death, Janet ran to Pym for help. Seeing her dedication to the cause of fighting ne'er-do-well's Pym let her in on his "little" secret and tells her that he's ready to have a partner to fight crime and she's the gal for him. (Ops, I mean for the job. Yeah, just for the job. Right.)
First, can we take specialized cells from on species and have it grow in or on another species?
Cross-species xenotransplants, that's the biological term for what Dr. Pym did to Janet by transplanting wasp specialized cells into her. There is a long history of cross-species xenotransplants starting in the 17th century when using animal blood in transfusions were first attempted. Sense then, transplants have been attempted using skin, kidneys and hearts. Some have been successful, most have not. There are a lot of factors to cause failure such as infection from viruses, bacteria and diseases. However, there has been one surprising success that has hit the news in the past couple of years which is earmouse. Earmouse has a human ear growing on its back by injecting human ear cells to grow there, much like what Pym did to Janet to grow antennae and wings.
Secondly, how is it that Wasp has antennae and wings when she shrinks but not when she is normal size? The biological term for this is epigenetic modification. Each specialized cells must know when to go to work, so there are conditions that can "turn on" or "turn off" the expression of certain genes. So, when Janet shrinks something must be happening in her genes to indicate the growth of her wings and antennae. There's nothing that indicates that we can shrink in this way so nothing to indicate how shrinking would trigger these cells. I propose that the wing and antennae cells are specialized to recognize shrinking maybe the closeness of nucleus to electrons in the atom in that area of the genes is able to activate their expression.
Thank you for reading! If you have not had the chance to read this issue I recommend getting volume 1 of Ant-Man's Marvel Masterworks. Look to your right, click and buy!